Skip main navigation

Phases of urbanization

We briefly reflect on the assignment
Brooklyn Bridge and the skyline of Manhattan, New York
© University of Groningen

Contemporary urbanization is believed to be in the third phase of urbanization, as urbanization in the global south (mainly Africa, Asia, Latin America) surpasses the urbanization rates of other regions. Yet, unlike the first phase of urbanization, the second and third phases are primarily characterized by the concentration of people in cities, and driven by a diversity of factors that go beyond simple ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors. Today, we live on an ‘urban planet’ and over 50% of the global population now lives in cities of varied sizes.

Consequently, our discussion of urbanization and its underlying drivers beyond simple ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors will continue in the next steps by focusing on the links between urbanization and global environmental and climate change. In particular, we will discuss the following questions in the next step:

  • How are urbanization and climate change linked?
  • What is urban adaptation?
  • Where can we find successfully adapted cities?
  • And how is climate adaptation related to sustainable urban development?
© University of Groningen
This article is from the free online

Sustainable Cities: Governing Urban Adaptation Under Climate Change

Created by
FutureLearn - Learning For Life

Our purpose is to transform access to education.

We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.

We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.

Learn more about how FutureLearn is transforming access to education