How does insulin control key pathways?
- Insulin acts on carbohydrates by achieving a reduction in blood glucose by stimulating glucose uptake, storage of glucose as glycogen and metabolism of glucose to ATP (see How does insulin act?)
- Insulin acts on fats by increasing the synthesis of lipoproteins in the liver and reducing the rate of β-oxidation of lipids, both of which result in an increase in circulating lipids
- Insulin promotes building up of protein and inhibits the breakdown of protein
In greater depth
Actions of insulin on carbohydratesInsulin achieves a reduction in blood glucose by stimulating glucose uptake, storage of glucose as glycogen and metabolism of glucose to ATP.In addition to removing glucose from the blood stream, insulin also has a number of actions to reduce the amount of glucose re-entering the blood stream from the liver. It reduces the rate of release of glucose from the liver by:
- Inhibiting glycogenolysis
- Stimulating glycogen synthesis
- Stimulating glucose uptake
- Stimulating glycolysis
- Indirectly inhibiting gluconeogenesis via inhibition of fatty acid mobilisation from adipose tissue
Actions of insulin on fats
Want to keep
University of Southampton online course,
Actions of insulin on proteinInsulin promotes building up protein and inhibits the breakdown of protein.Insulin has the following effects on protein metabolism:
- Stimulates transport of free amino acids across plasma membranes in liver and muscle
- Stimulates protein biosynthesis in muscle
- Reduces release of amino acid (proteolysis) from muscle
Our purpose is to transform access to education.
We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.
We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.