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## Next steps

This course has covered the basics of thermodynamics, starting from gases and ending up at free energy. University of Hull Chemistry at the University of Hull has a wide variety …

## Learning outcomes

The following learning outcomes will be addressed in this section. Demonstrate whether a chemical reaction will happen based on its energetic properties and temperature We will cover the equation used …

## What affects entropy?

We can calculate exact entropy changes by looking up standard molar entropies and working out the change from there. Or, we can do experiments to work it out. However, it’s …

## The connection between heat energy and temperature

What is enthalpy (heat energy)? Energy is released by reactions – or, sometimes, taken in – in the form of enthalpy. Enthalpy is simply the heat generated, and “heat” manifests …

## Empirical laws

There are three main empirically derived laws that combine into the Ideal Gas Law. This article then gives a worked example of how to apply them. Avogadro’s Law Avogadro’s Law …

## What is free energy?

Free energy is (Delta G = Delta H – T Delta S) — but where does it comes from and why does a negative (Delta G) mean a reaction will …

## What is entropy?

Entropy is a thermodynamic measure of ‘disorder’, which must always increase — but how can we measure it? Reversibility A reversible process is one that can occur in infinitesimal steps …

## An introduction to heat capacity

What is heat capacity? Heat capacity is the way that we can measure energy and enthalpy by monitoring temperature changes. Enthalpy Energy is released by reactions – or, sometimes, taken …

## Enthalpy

Internal energy changes An internal energy change is a state function. It is a function only of the initial state of the system, and the final state. [Delta U=U_2-U_1] The …

## Work

Here, we begin to relate energy and pressure together. Energy and pressure Pressure multiplied by volume is energy. You can see this from the ideal gas law, where pV = …

## What is kinetic and potential energy?

What actually is energy? We often consider forms of energy like chemical energy, electrical energy, or thermal energy. But behind the scenes, there are only two types of energy: kinetic …

## Ideal Gas Law

Limits of the Ideal Gas Law If you compress a gas (by reducing the volume) the ideal gas law gives a clear prediction of how pressure and temperature should change. …

## Gas mixtures

We don’t always work with a pure gas. Gases are often mixtures. For instance, the atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Gas mixtures The ideal gas law applies …

## The Gas Constant

In order to apply these equations, it’s vital to get the dimensions and units correct. This will then let us introduce the gas constant, what it means, and applying the …

## The Ideal Gas Law

This video and the notes below cover details about the ideal gas law, and the variables that make it up. Gas Laws The ideal gas law is: [pV=nRT] Where the …