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Bloodstream infections/sepsis

Bloodstream infections/sepsis are caused by pathogens entering the bloodstream (seen in infections such as HAP/VAP and cUTI). It is a systemic response which has met the clinical criteria of systemic …

Welcome to the course

Welcome to this course on non-fermenting gram negative bacteria, covering their defining features and role in antimicrobial resistance. This course has been developed by experts in microbiology. Over the next …

Complicated UTI

Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is a syndrome that is diagnosed by the presence of a microbial pathogen in the urine or blood, as well as pyuria. These pathogens are …

HAP/VAP

Hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-acquired pneumonia (HAP/VAP) are forms of pneumonia contracted whilst in hospital or when a ventilator is being used. A patient with HAP has an acute bacterial pneumonia, and has …

Novel therapies

Novel therapies often refer to unique therapies that have not been used before in a specific field. This can either be newly-developed antibiotics that have not yet been distributed widely …

Laboratory techniques

There are different laboratory techniques used in the detection of NFGNB for accurate diagnosis. As our understanding of these bacteria develops, so do the microbiology techniques used in their diagnosis. …

Emerging therapies

As mentioned in earlier steps, one of the main difficulties in treating infections caused by NFGNB is that they are resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics. Emerging therapies to …

Introduction to Diagnostics

Correctly diagnosing a patient is a crucial aspect of healthcare. An incorrect diagnosis can lead to misinformed care, resulting in dangerous health outcomes if unnecessary treatment is given or the …

Best practice guidelines for IPC

As seen in the previous step, guidelines for infection prevention and control are vital to reduce infection rates in many settings. This particular step will look into infection prevention and …

The link between non-fermenters and AMR

Key players of NFGNB are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Burkholderia cepacian. The prior two are categorised with a threat level of “serious” by the CDC. The latter …

The importance of infection prevention and control

The prevention and control of infection in all healthcare settings (including hospitals, GP surgeries, care facilities, individual homes and schools) is highly important. In environments with those who are immunocompromised, …

Introduction to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

This step will focus on Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, as this Stenotrophomonas species causes the greatest number of infections – with serious implications for vulnerable patients. S. maltophilia can be found in …

Introduction to Acinetobacter baumannii

Bacteria of the Acinetobacter genus are strictly aerobic and ubiquitous in the environment, with many species found in the soil and water. This step focuses on the species Acinetobacter baumannii …

Mechanisms of resistance

Antimicrobial resistance is increasingly problematic in the management of NFGNB, as these bacteria show both multidrug resistance (MDR) and high levels of intrinsic resistance. Intrinsic resistance describes a trait of …