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Skip to 0 minutes and 13 seconds By 1992, the World Heritage Committee elected to convene a meeting of the specialists to advise and assist redraft the Committee’s Operational Guidelines to include ‘cultural landscapes’ as an option for heritage listing properties that were neither purely natural nor purely cultural in form like the mix site.

Skip to 0 minutes and 44 seconds So the world Heritage Committee’s adoption and use of the concept of cultural landscape has seen multiple specialists around the world. And many nations identifying cultural landscape, assessing cultural landscape, heritage listing and meanings and effectively making landscape known and visible to the world with very practical and ramifications and challenges. Cultural landscapes are cultural properties and represent the “combined works of nature and of man” designated in Article 1 of the Convention. They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal.

Skip to 1 minute and 51 seconds It is important not to confuse mixed properties and cultural landscapes. Mixed properties are inscribed under both at least one of criteria 1 to 6 and at least one of criteria 7 to 10,because they meet both criteria independently. The Outstanding Universal Value of cultural landscapes arises not from their cultural or natural qualities assessed independently but from the inter-relationship between culture and nature valve Cultural landscapes are identified under the cultural criteria. Such properties often have natural values, but usually not at the level to justify inscription under natural criteria. In the cases where they do, the property will be inscribed as a mixed site and a cultural landscape. This set of relationships is theoretically explained in the diagram below.

Skip to 3 minutes and 3 seconds Some mixed properties the natural values and cultural values are integrated and co-dependent. In other cases, the values may not be co-dependent but simply share the same geographic location. So you can see from this diagram shows the inter relationship between natural properties, culture properties, mix side and cultural landscape. Well, you can see that to define a cultural landscape, There’s a creative one , The most easily identifiable is the clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes constructed for aesthetic reasons which are often associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles.

Skip to 4 minutes and 2 seconds Category two is the organically evolved landscape. This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative This results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories. I need to stress that the first category is a relict landscape is one in which an evaluation process came to an end at the some time in the past, either all a period. Its significant distinguished features. However, still visible in material forms.

Skip to 5 minutes and 0 seconds Second category is one which retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with the traditional way of life, and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress. At the same time it exhibits significant material evidence of its evolution over time.

Skip to 5 minutes and 27 seconds And the third category is the associative cultural landscape. The inscription of such landscapes on the World Heritage List is justifiable by virtue of the powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent. In this section, we figure out what is the cultural landscape. And then I give interpreter to figure out why the cultural landscape incorporate into the world healthy program. And then we figure out the three category of the cultural landscape. Next section, I’m going to talk about several examples. Thank you

Mixed heritage operational guidelines and cases(3)

By the end of this video, you can have fruitful information about the categories of mixed property and cultural landscape introduced by Dr. Rouran Zhang. You will also understanding the core model and properties of mixed heritage.

How many categories of cultural landscapes have been mentioned by Dr. Zhang? Could you please summarize their characteristics in the comment area?

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