Skip to 0 minutes and 4 secondsIn this section, I will introduce the main binding methods. The first we will examine is the scroll. As you cannot really call a single sheet of paper a book, let us define a book as two or more sheets of paper bound together in some form or other so that they can be read or looked at in some kind of order. The way the book is bound determines what it looks like. Scrolls are said to be the oldest type of texts made using paper. The format was introduced to Japan from China and this is what it looks like. You open them and then you read them by unfurling them like this.
Skip to 1 minute and 12 secondsThe leaves are lined up horizontally and pasted together in this area with glue or other adhesive. When you have done one you move on to the next. As a rule, the leaf on the right is pressed onto the next leaf. Many leaves connected together form a scroll. Then, a wooden roller―the inner part is wood― is applied to the last blank sheet around which the scroll is rolled up. The two ends of the roller that stick out from the paper are often made of materials other than wood. They have both a decorative and a practical function, as if you touch the ends of the roller you do not touch the paper, and so there is less chance of damaging it.
Skip to 2 minutes and 26 secondsThis particular scroll is a Buddhist sutra and features this beautiful roller. The two ends of the roller are called jikugashira (roller heads). They can be made of a wide variety of materials, including fine woods like rosewood and ebony, ivory, metal as in this one, or crystal. You read them by unfurling about this much of it. When you are finished you have to roll it back up, so it requires quite a bit of labor both to read a scroll and to store it away. In most cases, a cover is applied over the first sheet of the scroll, like this, so the scroll has a front and a reverse side.
Skip to 3 minutes and 37 secondsThe edge of the cover, this part here, I think you can see it is rather hard and sturdy; here is where a long and thin half-moon shaped bamboo dowel called takehigo is attached. The inner-facing part is flat. This part is called hassō and it is there to ensure that the edge adheres perfectly to the scroll when it is rolled up and the cover does not curl up. Moving on, this lace here is the makihimo and it is attached to the scroll by passing it through a hole near the hassō, and fastening it tightly. So what you do is wrap it around the scroll, fold the edge, pass your finger through it, and pull vigorously to tie it.
Skip to 4 minutes and 50 secondsWhen you want to read it, you simply pull here where you folded the lace and it comes undone.
Main Binding Methods 1 - Scroll
There are five main binding styles in traditional Japanese bookmaking. First, read the article below, and then watch Prof. Sasaki talk about the oldest and most prestigious one, scroll binding.
The Five Main Binding Styles
Moving back to books, we can define a book as several sheets of paper arranged in order and bound together. The sheets can be bound in many different ways, and the book will look different depending on the binding method used. All methods used in traditional Japanese bookmaking were first invented in China. They were introduced in Japan in successive waves, very much like the kanji pronunciations that we discussed in a previous section.
Despite their common origins, many differences set apart Japanese books from their Chinese and Korean counterparts. The primary reason for these differences is the much greater diffusion of printing on the Asian mainland compared to Japan. Woodblock-printed books, which first appeared in China in the 7th century under the Tang had become the dominant format by the Song dynasty (960-1279). Popular commercial editions known as fangkeben (J. bōkokubon) were also in existence by the Song. Printing was so successful in China because it allowed to disseminate a standardized version of any text in a large country with widespread literacy. But in Japan, where literacy was far more limited and distances were much smaller, printing was only used for Buddhist works until the seventeenth century, despite having been introduced as early as the 8th century. It was only with the introduction of new printing technology from Korea and Europe and the arrival of Christian missionaries between the late 16th and early 17th centuries that (movable-type) printing came into widespread use. Prof. Ichinohe will say more about these developments in the third week of the course.
Publishing is a form of mass production, so efficiency is important. In China and Korea, where printed books dominated from early on, the most popular binding methods were those best suited to printed books and other methods were rarely used. By contrast, in Japan where manuscripts held sway for much longer, efficiency was never a concern and a wide range of different formats and binding methods were used according to their suitability to the content and aim of each book. The five main binding methods used in traditional Japanese bookmaking are the following:
- I. kansusō (scroll binding)
- II. orihon (concertina or accordion-style binding)
- III. detchōsō (“oriental style” or “pasted paper leaf” binding)
- IV. tetsuyōsō (“multisection” binding)
- V. fukurotoji (“bound-pocket” or “pouch” binding)
The styles can be grouped into subgroups according to different criteria. In the first three formats, the sheets are joined together with glue, whereas in the last two thread or string is used. Styles nos. III to V are all book-style formats and are collectively called sōshi (books). With styles nos. III and IV it is usual to have writing on both sides of the sheet/page, whereas in styles nos. I and II it is not common. Let us look at each method in more detail, starting with those that use glue.
I. Kansusō (scroll binding)
In scroll binding, the different sheets of paper are joined together with glue to form a long horizontal strip; a cover sheet is applied at one end and a roller (jiku) at the other, around which the scroll is rolled up. The parts of the roller that stick out from the paper are called jikugashira (roller-heads). The outer edge of the “front” cover is rolled inwards to form a tube called hassō through which a half-moon shaped bamboo dowel is inserted. The dowel’s function is to make the cover stick firmly to the scroll. The scroll can be then tied tightly together with a lace (makihimo).
In most cases scrolls bear writing only on the inner side, but the rear side was used occasionally when no more space was available on the inner side. This is known as uragaki (“rear inscription”). The scroll is the most ancient of the paper book formats. As the first scrolls that were brought from China contained extremely valuable content such as Buddhist sutras and the great writings of China, scroll binding was perceived in Japan as highly prestigious and even after it ceased to be used in China, it remained a popular format for books of an official or formal nature (See two samples below).
One of the characteristics of the scroll is that the viewing area is larger than in an ordinary book, and for this reason it was often used for works with illustrations and diagrams or charts. The disadvantages are that it is not easy to go directly to the section one wants to look at and that the scroll must be rewound after reading it. However, rather than diminishing the popularity of the format, these characteristics added to its aura of prestige and authority. The individual volumes of a book are still today called ikkan, nikan etc. (scroll one, scroll two, etc.) because of the past popularity of the scroll format. However, modern specialists use the term jiku (literally, roller) to number individual scrolls.
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