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Skip to 0 minutes and 11 secondsHi, and welcome to this lecture on performance analysis in ProM. So in the last lecture, we covered the alignments where we related the event of data to the process models. And we can use this to enhance the process model. So as I mentioned, you know how to align a trace within a process model. And you get the alignments shown above. And I hope you realize that sometimes a mismatch between the trace and a model that exists. And alignments fix that. Using these alignments, we can also predict timing information on the process model. So let's look at the trace where we showed the timing information. For instance, here you have a trace that starts a time stamp 0.

Skip to 0 minutes and 51 secondsSo the observation of activity A is when the timer starts. Then activity B is observed at time stamp 5, et cetera, et cetera, until activity G has been observed at time stamp 20. So we know exactly relatively within the trace when certain activities have been observed. And usually you only know the completion times. So when was activity B completed? You usually don't have timing information on when it's started. Then, of course, we can add two more traces with different timing information. A starts a timer for the particular trace, F raises the middle trace, ends at the time stamp 14, and the last trace at time stamp 30.

Skip to 1 minute and 30 secondsUsing the alignments, we know exactly how to relate these events to the process model, and we can annotate activities with the times at which it has been observed. So activity A, for instance, is always observed at time stamp 0. But activity B has been observed at timestamps 5, 9, and 16 after the start of the trace. And similarly, we can annotate all the other transitions and activities with this timing information. So using this information, we can also annotate the places. So for instance, the place in between A and B, we know that cases spent at 5, 9, or 16 time units waiting until activity B fires, and similarly between A and C, and A and D, for instance.

Skip to 2 minutes and 11 secondsAlso, the place before E or F we can annotate. I also know that E has only been observed two times and F once, so different frequencies of observations can exist. However, this place is only occupied when both transitions, B, C, and D have fired. So you have to take the maximum time of when these are fired. And then you look at the time at which E or F has fired. So a token or a case typically spends here three or four time units until E or F is fired. And I hope you can see that we can annotate also the other places. Similarly, we can get information on how much time though can spend in places.

Skip to 2 minutes and 50 secondsNote that if you also have the starting time, we can distinguish between waiting time and execution time of an activity. But for now, since we only have completion times, this is the best we can do. So let's switch to ProM and show you how you can get these results and project them on a process model. So with ProM open, let's import the artificial learn example, Event Log, and let's discover a Petri Net using the Inductive Miner with standard settings. And using this process model, let's use this to calculate alignments again. So with this process model, select Learn Example Event Log, and now select this plug-in. Replay A Log On Petri Net For Performance/Performance Analysis.

Skip to 3 minutes and 37 secondsAnd we get slightly different dialogs. So here you can specify patterns. But let's skip that for now. You can also say that the mapping option for the string activity names is OK. And here, you can verify that all the mapping between the process model and event log has been done correctly. Here, again, you can specify the costs for deviations.

Skip to 4 minutes and 2 secondsAnd the time stamp attribute usually contains the time of the exclusion of the activity. So that's OK. Here, it's important to say no because otherwise, you get very few results because it has to ignore many traces. So when we zoom in, and through this process model, you see that transitions now have an orange or red color. And the darker red means the more time spent in that transition. So if we look at the global statistics, we see that on average, the case spends 25 minutes in the process with a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 41 minutes. And of course, you want to know where time is spent.

Skip to 4 minutes and 46 secondsWell, here, of the 24 minutes on average, 12 minutes are spent here and 11 here, which since these are in parallel, this is not sequential. But cases are waiting for either of these three to be executed. But these two take a while before they are executed. And if you open the element statistics, you get more details so you know that on average, the time is 12 minutes, maximum 27 minutes, and the fastest execution observed was two minutes. And this helps you indicate where the bottlenecks are in the process. Another way to do this is to use the inductor visual miner. So with the event log alone, we apply the inductor visual miner, and it quickly finds a model.

Skip to 5 minutes and 39 secondsBut now instead of show pass, we say show pass and, for instance, show your own time. And then we see indeed that calculate capacity has an average duration of 12 minutes. And in the bottom right, when you move over a transition, on the bottom right, you get a graph of the distribution and some other statistics. And you can inspect all the transitions and see how long they take. So let's do the first option again on the BPI 2012 Challenge Event Log. So let's select this one. We are in the ANO process. Let's import the event log. And again, let's mine the process model using inductive miner.

Skip to 6 minutes and 26 secondsAnd dispose of model. We again, align on the data. Be careful to select the correct event log. And then again, select the Replay Log on Petri Net for performance and conformance analysis. All the matching is done correctly. Always verify, since these match very well. The mapping is done correctly. Also, the cost, we keep one for now. It's going to be aligning the model and the data. Again, the time stamp attribute contains the time. And here we click No. And now we see how a real process is executed. And where the bottlenecks are. So here we can move to the right. And we see that actually, this is the key bottleneck.

Skip to 7 minutes and 14 secondsAnd if we open the element in the global statistic and move them in view, we see that this activity cancellation takes on average 20 days while the case Drupal time on average is 7 days. So that might be interesting to investigate further since this is a rather high deviation. And actually, the execution time of this activity is longer than the average run time. So it's likely that this activity is not executed for each trace. I know you can also click on places and other activities to see how long they typically take. And you also know that all the black transitions in the previous few don't have any timing because they are not observable activities.

Skip to 8 minutes and 5 secondsSo using these two plugins, you can evaluate how long a case on average takes and where most time is spent in the process. So now you've seen how you can predict timing information onto a process model. And you also know how you can get served for a lot of time related statistics for particular activities. So this is one example of an extension technique that combines the event of data with the process model. In the next lecture, I will show you another technique focusing on the social network aspect. I hope to see you again in the next lectures

Performance analysis in ProM

In this step we show several ways that ProM plug-ins can be use to analyse the performance of a process.

In this video we use the ‘Artificial - Loan Process.xes.gz’ event log first, and then the ‘BPI_Challenge_2012_AO.xes.gz’ event log.

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This video is from the free online course:

Introduction to Process Mining with ProM

Eindhoven University of Technology

Course highlights Get a taste of this course before you join:

  • Introduction
    Introduction
    video

    Introduction to process mining: recognizing event data, what is process mining and what can process mining analyse.

  • Installing ProM lite
    Installing ProM lite
    video

    In this step we show how to find and install the free and open source process mining tool ProM lite.

  • Using ProM lite
    Using ProM lite
    video

    In this lecture we show the basic concepts and usage of ProM (lite): the resource, action and visualization perspectives.

  • Event logs
    Event logs
    video

    In this lecture we explain what an event log is and how it is structured. We also explain the most common attributes found in an XES event log.

  • Event logs in ProM
    Event logs in ProM
    video

    In this lecture we show you how you can load an event log in ProM and how you can get initial insights in the contents.

  • Converting a CSV file to an event log
    Converting a CSV file to an event log
    video

    Most data is not recorded in event log format. In this video we explain how a CSV file can be converted to an event log.

  • Exploring event logs with the dotted chart
    Exploring event logs with the dotted chart
    video

    After loading an event log into ProM it is important to apply the dotted chart to get initial process insights before process models are discovered.

  • Filtering event logs
    Filtering event logs
    video

    Before good quality process models can be discovered the event log data needs to be filtered to contain only completed cases for instance.