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Historical events part II


Chiang continues to illustrate more historical events that occurred from 1964 to 1981. He also briefly mentions the 4 basic principles of healthcare ethics.

Key points

The Declaration of Geneva is a modern form of Hippocratic Oath. It was revised in 1948, 1968, and 1983.

The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki is probably the most sophisticated guide on research involving human subjects. It has gone through nine revisions, with the latest version being completed in 2013.

In 1966, a physician named wrote an article titled “Ethics and Clinical Research”. He brought attention to many unethical research including some conducted by prestigious organizations.

Tuskegee Syphilis Study is major scandal exposed in 1972. The case invoked national uproar in the US.

The 1981 Declaration of Lisbon, focus on the rights of patients. Which changed the traditional belief that doctors should decide everything for the patients.

4 basic principles of health care ethics:

  • Respect for autonomy

  • Nonmaleficence

  • Beneficence

  • Justice

Issues related to respect for autonomy:

  • Informing the patient of the research or treatment they are about undertake.

  • If the patient has capacity and competency for decision-making.

  • Advanced directives should a person become unable to make decision.

  • Surrogate decision-making.

Share and learn

Have you learnt about any of the above historical events?

Which one intrigued you the most?

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Good Pharmacy Practice: Pharmaceutical Services

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