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可传播的耐药菌

An article about Transferable Resistant Bacteria from the University of Dundee.
Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacterium
© UoD 和 BSAC

耐药菌可在人与人之间直接或间接地传播。先前耐药微生物的寄殖会产生多重耐药菌导致的多种感染。

耐药菌在人之间的传播经常涉及医疗相关感染,特别是在医院环境中。在英国,多重耐药菌,例如耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌 (MRSA) 导致的感染已被视为医院的医护质量指标。突然爆发 MRSA 感染的英国医院曾因缺乏卫生措施而在全国性报纸的头版受到批判。但是,也不能单纯地将多重耐药菌的传播完全归咎于医院。

社区中的抗生素使用也会明显促进耐药菌的出现和传播,这通常涉及个人卫生不良之类的公共健康问题。

在发展中国家/地区,食物和水被人类排泄物污染以及直接地接触污水的机会也是耐药菌传播的重要促进因素。接触排泄物会显著地促进多重耐药革兰阴性菌的传播,例如正常情况下构成大肠菌群的临床重要细菌大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌。

可传播的耐药性的两种机制,即耐药性基因的传播和耐药菌的传播,在耐药菌的全球传播领域都有重要意义。这两种机制互为补充,要控制多重耐药性感染的出现和传播,需要同时从这两个方面着手。

在本课程中,我们将专门介绍抗菌药管理,它的目标是通过控制抗生素的使用预防耐药菌的出现和传播。手部卫生、隔离和清洁之类的标准感染防护方法可作为抗菌药管理的补充和支持,尤其是应对耐药菌在人之间传播的风险。

© UoD 和 BSAC
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抗菌素管理: 管理抗生素耐药性

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