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Mixed heritage operational guidelines and cases(1)

Mixed heritage operational guidelines and cases
In this section, I’m going to divide it into two parts. The first part, I’m going to talk about the concept of mixed heritage. And the second part, I’m going to talk about the important concept we called cultural landscape. Well, before I talk about the cultural landscape, there is another type of heritage source I need to stress here. It is a mixed culture and natural heritage. The Operational Guidelines defines mixed properties as those which satisfy part or the whole of the definitions of both cultural and natural heritage laid out in Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention. You can see from the operational kind of paragraph 46. And one of the example I would like to stress is Mount Taishan .
It’s not far from Beijing and it is nominated space on the all the six criterion, which is fantastic. Not only all the six criterions, but also the criterion seven. The sacred Mount Tai (‘shan’ means ‘mountain’) was the object of an imperial cult for nearly 2,000 years, and the artistic masterpieces found there are in perfect harmony with the natural landscape. It has always been a source of inspiration for Chinese artists and scholars and symbolizes ancient Chinese civilizations and beliefs. And you know, I just want to, you know review the criterion by criterion, because this is a one spectacular examples, you know, have a bit review about the criterion we already learned. Criterion one represents a genius creative.
The landscape of Mount Taishan as one of the five sacred mountains in traditional China is a unique artistic achievement, very size places this scenic landscape, which has evolved over a period of 2,000 years, among the most grandiose human achievements of all time. And the Criterion (ii) , Mount Taishan, the most venerated of mountains in China, exerted for 2,000 years multiple and wide-ranging influence on the development of art. The conceptual model of a mountain bearing the traces of man, where graceful structures – bridges, gateways or pavilions – contrast with sombre pine forests or frightening rocky cliffs, could only have originated by referring to Mount Taishan.
The Criterion (iii), the Mount Taishan bears unique testimony to the lost civilizations of imperial China, most particularly in relation to their religions, arts and letters. For 2,000 years it was one of the principal palace of warship where the emperor paid homage to Heaven and Earth in the Fengshan sacrifices, conducted by the Son of Heaven himself.
The Criterion (iv): Mount Taishan is an outstanding example of a sacred mountain. The Palace of Heavenly Blessings (1,008 CE), located inside the Temple to the God of Taishan, is one of the three oldest palaces in China.
And the Criterion (v): The natural and cultural ensemble of Mount Taishan comprises a traditional human settlement in the form of a cult centre dating from the ancient period, which has become an outstanding example of traditional culture under the impact of irreversible change wrought by increasing visitation and tourism.
And then Criterion (vi): Mount Taishan is directly and tangibly associated with events whose importance in universal history cannot be minimized. These include the emergence of Confucianism, the unification of China, and the appearance of writing and literature in China. And the appearance of writing literature in china.
And then is Criterion (vii): With nearly 3 billion years of natural evolution, Mount Taishan was formed through complicated geological and biological processes, which resulted in a gigantic rock mass covered with dense vegetation towering over the surrounding plateau. This dramatic and majestic mountain is an outstanding combination of a beautiful natural landscape dominated by the cultural impacts of thousands of years of human use. So that is the seven criterion of the Mount Taishan. There are four world nature and culture mix site in china. Mount Huangshan, Thaishan, Wuyishan and Emeishan. And another example is Mount Huangshan. Huangshan listed at the world heritage list in 1990.
Huangshan, known as ‘the loveliest mountain of China’, was acclaimed through art and literature during a good part of Chinese history. Today it holds the same fascination for visitors, poets, painters and photographers who come on pilgrimage to the site, which is renowned for its magnificent scenery made up of many granite peaks and rocks emerging out of a sea of clouds. It is based on the cultural criterion two, The cultural value of Mount Huangshan’s scenic landscape first entered the Chinese imagination in the Tang Dynasty and has been held in high esteem ever since.
The mountain was named Huangshan by imperial order in the year 747 and from that time on attracted many visitors, including hermits, poets and painters, all of whom eulogized the mountain’s inspirational scenery through painting and poetry, creating a rich body of art and literature of global significance. By the Ming Dynasty , Mount Huangshan had become a favourite theme of Chinese landscape painters, establishing the influential Shanshui school of landscape painting. Showcasing the interaction of man and nature in this highly scenic setting has inspired generations of Chinese artists and writers.
And then it is also based on Criterion (vii): Mount Huangshan is renowned for its magnificent natural scenery which includes massive granitic boulders and ancient pine trees which are often further enhanced by cloud and mist effects. This dramatic landscape includes formations of natural stone pillars, grotesquely-shaped rocks, waterfalls and caves, formed by its complex geological history. And this Mount Huangshan and also based on the Criterion (x) , because it provides the habitat for a number of locally or nationally endemic plant species, several of which are globally threatened. Well, another example is Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area. And the Buddhist temple in China was built here in Sichuan Province in the 1st century A.D.
in the beautiful surroundings of the summit Mount Emei. The addition of other temples turned the site into one of Buddhism’s holiest sites. Over the centuries, the cultural treasures grew in number. The most remarkable is the Giant Buddha of Leshan, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century and looking down on the confluence of three rivers. At 71 meter high, it is the largest Buddha in the world. Mount Emei is also notable for its exceptionally diverse vegetation. Some of the trees are more than 1,000 years old. In this part, I figure out what is the mixed heritage and give three examples Mount Thaishan, Mount Huangshan and Mount Emeishan, and Leshan Buddhist sites.
And the next part, I’m going to talk about a significant issue, cultural landscape.

Welcome to the second week of Culture and Tourism. In the last week, we had learned the UNSCO World Heritage programme, cultural heritage and natural heritage. We hope you are interested in this topic.This week focuses on the mixed heritage and other heritage categorise.

By the end of this video, you will have a good understanding of mixed cultural and natural heritage operational guidelines related to the mixed heritage properties through several worldwide cases from Dr. Rouran Zhang.

What do you think are the common values of these mixed heritage? Are their cultural and natural meanings attractive to you?

Please feel free to leave a comment in the comments section and let us discuss the story behind the world famous case.

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International Culture and Tourism Management: Cultural Heritage and Tourism Management

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