PrimaryCaused by specific activity, such as ongoing eruptions.
Perhaps the most familiar hazards to us are primary hazards and more specifically lava flows. If you’ve seen any of the famous volcano disaster movies such as Volcano and Dante’s Peak, you’ll see lava flows featured.
SecondaryCaused by instability of the volcano.
Primary hazardsThere are three main categories of primary hazards.
LavaLava flows are actually deemed to be one of the least dangerous hazards as it moves slowly. But, a lava flow can’t usually be stopped or diverted and they are extremely hot (reaching temperatures of over 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit).
AshAsh can be ejected high into the atmosphere, eventually spreading sideways to form a large cloud. From the cloud, ash particles rain down and impact everything in its vicinity. The coarser ash particles land closest to the volcano. The finer ash particles can be picked up strong winds and travel thousands of miles from the erupting volcano. Ash can also flow down the sides of the volcanoes at speeds of up to a few hundreds of kilometres per hour. They are called pyroclastic flows and are made up of hot ash and gases.
Want to keep
Cardiff University online course,
Extreme Geological Events
GasVolcanoes can emit gases which can harm us and lead to deaths. Gases such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide can also impact our climate, causing warming and cooling respectively.
Rock AvalanchesStructural collapse of volcanoes can cause block and ash flows, which are essentially rock avalanches. These are secondary hazards.
LaharsLahars are another secondary hazard and they are mud and debris that flows down the sides of volcanoes. They are mobilised by water and can be incredibly destructive. These occurred as a result of the recent 2018 eruption of Volcán de Fuego, Guatemala. In the next step we’ll investigate and discuss volcano risks and provide opportunities to explore some specific examples.
Extreme Geological Events
Our purpose is to transform access to education.
We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.
We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.