Skip main navigation

£199.99 £139.99 for one year of Unlimited learning. Offer ends on 28 February 2023 at 23:59 (UTC). T&Cs apply

Find out more

Grammar 1 (ㅎ불규칙)

Grammar 1 (ㅎ불규칙)

In this week, we studied 5 color nouns of ‘하얀색(white), 까만색(black), 파란색(blue), 빨간색(red), 노란색(yellow)’.

In fact, these color nouns are derived from the color adjectives ‘‘하얗다, 까맣다, 파랗다, 빨갛다, 노랗다’’. All of these color adjectives have a consonant ‘ㅎ’, which is used in different forms depending on what grammar follows. That’s why we call this the ‘ㅎ불규칙(ㅎ irregularity)’.


First, when a grammar that starts with ‘-아/어’ comes, the ‘ㅎ’ consonant disappears and a ‘ㅣ’ vowel is created. So, it is used like ‘하얗다+-아/어요→하얘요’.


And when a grammar that starts with ‘-으’ comes, only the ‘ㅎ’ consonant disappears. So, it is used like ‘하얗다+-(으)ㄴ→하얀’.

  문법∖색깔형용사 하얗다 까맣다 파랗다 빨갛다 노랗다
1 + -아/어요 하얘요 까매요 파래요 빨개요 노래요
2 + -아/어서 하얘서 까매서 파래서 빨개서 노래서
3 + -(으)ㄴ 하얀 까만 파란 빨간 노란
4 + -(으)니까 하야니까 까마니까 파라니까 빨가니까 노라니까

1) 눈이 내려서 세상이 하얘요.

2) 하늘이 파래서 기분이 좋아요.

3) 봄이 돼서 빨갛고 노란 꽃들이 피었어요.

4) 피부가 많이 빨가니까 병원에 가 보세요.

This article is from the free online

Intermediate Korean: Exploring the Language and Culture of Korea

Created by
FutureLearn - Learning For Life

Our purpose is to transform access to education.

We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.

We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.

Learn more about how FutureLearn is transforming access to education