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Paper-decorating for bookmaking reached its full maturity in the 12th century. As much as I would have liked to use actual specimen from that period, I do not have access to originals here, so I will be using 17th-century replicas. In the 12th century, during the Heian period, several different techniques to join together different pieces of paper were used. For example, this sheet here is made of three different pieces of colored paper that were cut and joined together. This technique, which consists in connecting the pieces along a straight line, is called kiritsugi (“cut and join” technique). Moving on to this one, the different pieces of paper are joined along a curved line.
In this particular book, the front and back side are both made of different sheets joined together; this technique of joining fragments along a curved line is called “yaburitsugi” (“tear and join” technique). Finally, the most impressive technique of the three. In this kind of yaburitsugi, not two but several papers of different color are cut in a curved line and then layered in a slightly offset manner along the seam.This technique, which produces a gradation of colors resembling the slowly changing colors in the collar of a Heian jūnihitoe kimono (formal attire of Heian court ladies), is called kasanetsugi (“overlay and join”). Books of extraordinary beauty were made using this technique.
Even in the Heian period,this technique was not used frequently due to its complexity. During the Edo period(1603-1868), Heian-period books became extremely popular and were often imitated. The books we have here is an example; we can say it is an imitation or a replica of a Heian book. Going back to the yaburitsugi, the edges in Heian-period example were more roughly torn and look jagged and irregular, whereas in Edo period examples the lines are smooth and appear to have been cut using bladed tools. But even though they are not perfect replicas, these books convey all the admiration that Edo-period Japanese artists and craftsmen had for the styles of the Heian period.





西本願寺本三十六人集 能宣集(よしのぶしゅう)

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©36poets Collection Yoshinobu, 03:45, 7 April 2012, in Wikipedia.



破り継(やぶりつぎ) は、繋ぎ合わせる部分が、あたかも紙を破ったかのようにぎざぎざになっているもので、曲線的なものが目立ちます。やはり17世紀にまねをしたものがありますが、曲線が刃物で切り取ったようになっており、平安時代のものとは随分異なっています。

西本願寺本三十六人集 元輔集(もとすけしゅう)

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©36poets collection MOTOSUKE, 09:09, 9 March 2016, in Wikipedia.


重ね継(かさねつぎ) は、破り継の発展形ともいえるもので、破り継が2枚で行うのに対して、色の異なる3枚以上の紙を同じ形に破って、平安時代の女性の装束として有名な、十二単(じゅうにひとえ)の襟元の様に、少しづつずらして貼り重ねる技法です。高度な技法であり極めて珍しいもので、西本願寺本三十六人集が孤例と言えそうです。

西本願寺本三十六人集 能宣集(よしのぶしゅう)

paper Wikipediaで詳しく見る
©36poets collection MOTOSUKE, 09:09, 9 March 2016, in Wikipedia.




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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 和本を彩る和紙の世界

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