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砂子紙・箔置紙

砂子紙・箔置紙
2.1
One distinctive characteristic of paper used in Japanese books is the abundant use of gold and silver. First, over here we have what was originally part of a sutra scroll made in the 12th century, in the Heian period. As you can see, very fine specks of gold leaf and silver leaf are applied to the surface of the paper. As you can see here, the gold and silver leaf decorations can take a variety of shapes. The ones cut in a straight line are known as kirihaku (small foil squares) and the rough uneven ones are known as momihaku (crumpled foil). The small granulated gold and silver is known as sunago (literally, “sand”), and the long, threadlike ones are known as noge (“tinsel,” lit.
52.9
“field hair”). You can see the variety of gold and silver leaf designs that were used to decorate paper. Next over here is a 14th-century scroll. It narrates the origins of a temple and the reasons why it was built. This is also very expensive paper decorated with gold and silver. You can see many examples of sunago, kirihaku and other designs that I just mentioned. On the reverse side as well, the paper is decorated with tiny silver kirihaku squares. Furthermore, although this is the end-paper portion (a sheet of paper pasted on the back side of the front cover), it is also decorated with gold and silver leaf in various shapes.
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From early on, it was common to use these techniques to create elaborate patterns. Finally over here is a fragment of a book from around the 15th or 16th century. Here we have an example of kumogami, which we looked at in a previous Step. It is decorated with various shapes made of gold and silver leaf that were scattered on top of the sheet. From these examples, you can see how common it was to decorate books with gold and silver.

これまでに見てきたものは、染料を用いるにせよ基本的に紙だけを用いたものでしたが、続きましては紙に鉱物系の素材を加える装飾について説明いたします。

マルコポーロの『東方見聞録』には、「黄金の国ジパング」と、金にあふれた国であると日本が説明されていますが、日本の古い書物を見ていると、この記述があながち嘘ではないと納得できるほどに、金箔や金泥によって豪華な装飾が施されています。また金のみではなく銀も同様に用いられました。こうした鉱物を利用する例として忘れてならないのは、雲母(うんも)を利用したものです。雲母を粉にしたものを、糊として用いられた膠(にかわ)に混ぜてキラキラ光る透明な絵の具を作って紙を装飾したのです。顔料を加えてキラキラの絵の具を作ることも行われました。

こうした鉱物を用いた装飾紙は、鉱物の形状で呼び名が分類されています。粉状のものを用いたのが砂子紙(すなごがみ)で、金箔と銀箔を用いたのが箔置紙(はくおきがみ)です。

砂子紙は、糊を塗った紙の表面に金銀の箔や雲母などの砂状の粉を撒いたもので、密度を調節したり、型紙を用いることによって模様を描くこともありました。

箔置紙は、金銀の箔を様々な形に加工して、糊を塗った紙に貼りつけたものです。 箔は形により切金(きりかね)・切箔(きりはく)・裂箔(さきはく)・揉箔(もみはく)・野毛(箔)(のげ(はく))等と呼ばれます。この内の一種類だけを用いたものもありますが、金銀のいくつかのものを組み合わせて装飾するのが一般的でした。

ビデオでは、金銀の箔を用いた古い書物と断簡の例をご覧ください。

ビデオで紹介されている書物

books on the table

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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 和本を彩る和紙の世界

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