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雲母引・具引

雲母引・具引
2.1
In addition to gold and silver leaf, which were extremely popular, mica (called unmo or kira in Japanese) was used to add sparkle to the paper. For example, this is a fragment of a waka poetry collection written in the 11th century; it is just a tiny portion of a larger scroll and it may be a little hard to see, but here and there there are small shiny dots. The effect was obtained by sprinkling powdered mica on the paper, a technique known as kirachirashi (“mica sprinkling”). In kirachirashi , the paper sparkles only in some places, whereas in this example here the powdered mica was mixed with nikawa glue and then applied to the entire sheet.
48.9
It is similar to parts of this example, but with this type of decoration, called kirabiki or “mica coating” the entire page has a glossy finish. Another technique that contains the word biki in the name is the gubiki or “shell white coating”. Instead of mica, the white powder is made from seashells, which is known in Japanese as gofun (shell white). When gofun is mixed with nikawa glue, it produces a white paint-like substance that can be applied to the paper; this process is known as gubiki. Colors can be added to the white powder to produce thick color paper. This one here is an example of a book that has been decorated in different colors using the gubiki technique.
104.2
Thus, mica powder and shell white were commonly used to embellish and add color to the paper.

金銀の箔と同様に本の料紙の装飾材料として良く用いられたのが、透明な鉱物である雲母(うんも)を粉状にした雲母(きら)です。

これを膠(にかわ)を塗った紙の上に散らせば、キラキラ光る紙ができます。また膠にたっぷり混ぜて紙に塗れば全体が光り輝く紙にもなるのです。前者を雲母散し(きらちらし)あるいは雲母砂子散し(きらすなごちらし)などと言い、後者を雲母引(きらびき)と言います。また前者で雲母の量が多いものを雲母摺(きらずり)と呼んだりもします。書物ばかりではなく浮世絵でも用いられたりする技法です。昔の人にはキラキラ光るというのはとても不思議で魅力的に見えただろうと思います。

雲母(きら)の代わりに、蛤など貝殻を焼いてから砕いて粉状にしなものを胡粉(ごふん)と言いますが、これを膠にまぜて作った白い絵の具のようなものを刷毛で紙に塗りつけたものを具引き(ぐびき)と言います。胡粉に顔料を加えると様々な色の絵の具のようなものもできあがります。具引きの紙も平安時代とこれをまねた江戸時代前期のものに目立ちます。

ビデオでは、雲母散しと雲母引きのキラキラ光る紙の例と、具引を行った厚紙の例をご覧ください。

ビデオで紹介されている書物

books on the table

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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 和本を彩る和紙の世界

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