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Sino-Japanese Interactions: Important Terms

This article works as a glossary and gives an overview of some of the most important terms when studying Sino-Japanese interactions.
© Keio University




  • Analects of Confucius: 論語 records of Confucius and his leading disciples [4.2]


  • Bai Juyi : 白居易 (772-846) poet in China Tang period [4.2]
  • Bunka: 文化 era in Edo period (1804-1818). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.9]


  • Chengzhai shihua : 誠齋詩話 a collection of miscellaneous essays on poetry by the Song-period poet Yang Wanli [4.9]
  • Chiba Unkaku: 千葉芸閣 (1727-1792)scholar of Chinese studies [4.5]
  • Collected Works of Master Nankaku : 南郭先生文集 works of Chinese poetry of Hattori Nankaku [4.6]
  • Confucian classics: 儒学 study based on classic thought of Confucius [4.2]


  • daimyo : 大名 feudal lords [4.2]
  • Dan Tōshisen : 談唐詩選 Ichikawa Kansai’s ferocious critique of the Tangshi xuan and its Kobunji-ha admirers [4.10]
  • Deer Enclosure: 鹿柴 poem by the Tang poet Pei Di [4.7]
  • Dōkanshō: 童観抄 hayashi Razan’s selection of helpful maxims excerpted from the Chinese classics with clear, easy to understand explanations [4.2]


  • Edo: 江戸 period of the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1868) [4.1],[4.4],[4.5],[4.7],[4.8]
  • Edo: 江戸 modern Tokyo [4.1],[4.6]
  • Eiho Eiyū : 英甫永雄 (1547-1602) Kenninji priest [4.2]
  • Emperor Qianlong : 乾隆帝 emperor reigned Qing from 1735 to 1795 [4.9]


  • Five Classics and the Four Books: 四書五経 general term for typical four Chinese books and five classic sutras of Confucianism [4.4]
  • Five Mountains, Gozan: 五山 five government-sponsored Zen centers in Kyoto and Kamakura [4.1],[4.2]
  • Fujiwara seika: 藤原惺窩 (1561-1619) Confucian scholar [4.1]


  • Gozanbun-hen : 五山分編 Hayashi Razan’s own selections of fine writing by Five-Mountain authors from the 14th through 16th centuries [4.2]
  • Guwen zhenbao houji : 古文真宝後集 Chinese anthology [4.2]


  • haigō: 俳号 haiku name [4.12]
  • haiku: 俳諧 form of Japanese literature popularized in Edo period [4.12]
  • Hattori Nankaku: 服部南郭 (1683-1759) Confucian scholar, poet, painter [4.5],[4.6],[4.10]
  • Hayashi Gahō : 林 鵞峰 (1618-1680) Confucian scholar, Hayashi Razan’s son [4.2]
  • Hayashi Razan: 林羅山 (1583-1657) Confucian scholar, a. k. a. Dōsyun [4.1],[4.2],[4.3],[4.4]
  • Heian: 平安 period (794-1185) [4.2]
  • Honchō hennenroku: 本朝編年録 Hayashi Razan’s compiled history of Japan [4.2]
  • Honchō ichinin isshu : 本朝一人一首 Hayashi Gahō-edited a complication of essays on single poems by Japanese poets of kanshi (poems in Chinese) [4.2]
  • Honchō jinja-kō: 本朝神社考 Hayashi Razan’s genealogy of Japanese shrines [4.2]
  • Honchō tsūkan: 本朝通鑑 a history of Japan completed by Hayashi Gahō [4.2]


  • Ichikawa kansai: 市河寛斎 (1749-1820) Confucian scholar, poet [4.10]
  • Itō Jinsai : 伊藤仁斎 (1627-1705) Confucian scholar, philosopher [4.4]


  • Jugakusha: 儒学者 Confucian scholar [4.1]


  • Kakō rosetsu: 歌行露雪 Hayashi Razan’s collection of annotated versions of famous works by Bai Juyi [4.2]
  • Kan’ei shōka keizuden: 寛永諸家系図伝 Hayashi Razan’s geneaology of daimyo and other prominent families [4.2]
  • kana: 仮名 characters of Japan, derived from Chinese characters [4.2]
  • kanbun: 漢文 classical Chinese [4.2],[4.5]
  • Kanbun: 寛文 era in Edo period (1661-1672). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.2]
  • Kangakusha: 漢学者 scholar of Chinese studies [4.1]
  • kanpan: 官版 government publications [4.8],[4.9]
  • kansei: 寛政 era in Edo period (1789-1801). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.8],[4.9]
  • Kansei Edict, Kansei-era Proscription of Heterodoxy : 寛政異学禁 (J. Kansei igaku no kin) (1790) reguration for study in the Kansei reforms [4.8]
  • Kashiwagi Jotei: 柏木如亭 (1763-1819)a composer of Chinese poems [4.10]
  • Katsushika Hokusai : 葛飾北斎 (1760-1849) Edo painter [4.5]
  • Kansei reforms: 寛政改革 reformation of Edo shogunate in the Kansei era [4.8]
  • Keiō: 慶応 era in Edo period (1865-1868). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.9]
  • Kenninji: 建仁寺 Temple in Kyoto [4.1],[4.2]
  • Kikuchi Gozan: 菊池五山 (1769-1849) a composer of Chinese poems [4.10]
  • Kinryūsan Sensōji : 金龍山浅草寺 oldest temple in Tokyo [4.6]
  • Kobayashi Shinbei: 小林新兵衛 Edo bookseller [4.5]
  • Kobun shinpō kōshū genkai taisei : 古文真宝後集諺解大成 A commentary on the Chinese anthology Guwen zhenbao houji, edited by Razan’s disciple Ukai Sekisai [4.2]
  • Kobunji-ha: 古文辞派 the Ancient Style School [4.4],[4.6],[4.8],[4.10],[4.12]
  • Kobunjigaku : 古文辞学 the study of archaic words and phrases [4.4],[4.8]
  • Kyōhō: 享保 era in Edo period (1716-1735). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.5], [4.6]
  • Kyoto: 京都 center of politics and culture for a long time in old Japan, modern Kyoto city [4.1],[4.6]


  • Li Bai: 李白 (701-762) poet in Tang dynasty [4.6]


  • Matsudaira Sadanobu: 松平定信 (1758-1829) feudal lord and chief of staff for Edo shogun [4.8]
  • Meiji: 明治 period (1868-1911) [4.9]
  • Meiji restoration : 明治維新 the recovery of the Imperial prerogatives in the late 19th century which brought feudalisim and the shogunate sytem to an end, and with which began the modernization and industrialization. [4.9],[4.13]
  • Ming : 明 dynasty in China (1368-1644) [4.4],[4.10]
  • Muromachi: 室町 period (1392-1573) [4.1]


  • Nagasaki: 長崎 harbor city in which Edo only trade port was located [4.9]
  • Neo-Confucianism, Shushigaku : 朱子学 Neo-Confucianism [4.4],[4.8]


  • Ogyū Sorai: 荻生徂徠 (1666-1728) Confucian scholar, thinker [4.4],[4.5]
  • Ōkubo Shibutsu: 大窪詩仏 (1767-1837) a composer of Chinese poems [4.10]
  • Osaka: 大阪 biggest city in western Japan [4.6]
  • Ōta Nanpo: 大田 南畝 (1749-1823)a poet of the Writing in the Ancient Style school [4.7]


  • Pei Di : 裴迪 Tang poet [4.7]
  • Provincial schools : 藩校 (J. Hankō), schools operated by local governments in Edo period [4.8]


  • Qin : 秦 dynasty in China (776-206 BCE) [4.4]
  • Qing dynasty : 清 last unified dynasty of China (1644-1912) [4.9],[4.10]


  • Razan Hayashi sensei-shū : 羅山林先生集 A monumental collection of Razan’s writing arranged by category [4.2]
  • Razan shokan : 羅山書簡 Hayashi Razan’s Correspondence [4.3]
  • Rinke, the Hayashi family: 林家 Hayashi Razan and his descendants [4.1]
  • Rivers and Lakes Poetry Society: 江湖詩社 an association which leader is Ichikawa kansai [4.10]


  • Santishi : 三体詩 J. Santaishi, Poetry in Three Styles [4.4]
  • Shimōsa: 下総 modern Chiba prefecture [4.6]
  • Shingon sect: 真言宗 one of the Buddhism in Japan, and Kūkai is the founder. [4.3]
  • Shintō: 神道 Japan’s religion, polytheism [4.3]
  • shogunate: 幕府 the samurai Administration who assumes the supreme power person of the samurai family a chief in the medieval or modern period in Japan [4.1],[4.2],[4.8]
  • Shōhei sōsho: 昌平叢書 a collection of miscellaneous essays [4.9]
  • Shōheizaka gakumonjo, Shōheizaka Center of Learning: 昌平坂学問所 Edo shogunate’s official center of learning [4.8],[4.9],[4.10]
  • Shushigaku , Neo-Confucianism: 朱子学 Neo-Confucianism [4.4],[4.8]
  • Siku quanshu: 四庫全書 a monumental collection of writing compiled during the Qing dynasty at the order of Emperor Qianlong [4.9]
  • Siku quanshu wu banben: 四庫全書無版本 a selection of previously unpublished works from the Siku quanshu [4.9]
  • Siku quanshu zongmu tiyao: 四庫全書総目提要 Annotated Index of the Siku quanshu [4.10]
  • Song: 宋 dynasty in China (960-1279) [4.4],[4.9],[4.10]
  • Song of Everlasting Regret: 長恨歌 Chinese poem by Bai Juyi [4.2]
  • Song of the Lute: 琵琶行 Tang-period epic by Bai Juyi [4.2]
  • Song shichao : 宋詩鈔 Qing period anthology Selections from Song Poetry [4.10]
  • Sumida River: 隅田川 river in Tokyo [4.6]


  • Tang : 唐 (618-907) dynasty in China [4.4],[4.6]
  • Tangshi xuan: 唐詩選 a collection of Chinese poems compiled in Ming dynasty [4.4],[4.5],[4.7],[4.10]
  • Tendai sect : 天台宗 one of Mahayana Buddhism sects [4.3]
  • Tenpō: 天保 era in Edo period (1830-1843). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.5]
  • Tenmei: 天明 era in Edo period (1781-1789). See 1.3 for the timeline of Japanese history and era names in Edo period. [4.8]
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu: 徳川家康 (1543-1616) the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan [4.1]
  • Tōshisen ehon : 唐詩選画本 Each poem of Tangshi xuan is accompanied by a basic commentary and a picture illustrating the content. [4.5]
  • Tōshisen kokujikai : 唐詩選国字解 a commentary of Tangshi xuan [4.5]
  • Tōshisen shōko : 唐詩選掌故 a commentary of Tangshi xuan [4.5],[4.7]
  • Tōshi kunkai: 唐詩訓解 a commentary of Tangshi xuan [4.5]
  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi: 豊臣秀吉 (1537-1598) warrior and senior regent to emperor [4.1]
  • Tsūshisen shōchi : 通詩選笑知 comic versions of the poems of the Tangshi xuan [4.7]


  • Ukai sekisai: 鵜飼石斎 (1615-1664) Hayashi Razan’s disciple, Confucian scholar [4.2]


  • waka: 和歌 Japanese poems [4.12]
  • Wang Wei: 王維 Tang dynasty poet [4.7]
  • Wu Mengju: 呉孟挙 Qing poet (1640-1717) [4.10]
  • Wu Zimu : 呉自牧 Qing poet [4.10]


  • Yang Chengzhai’s shichao : 楊誠斎詩鈔 an edition of Yang Wanli (whose pen name was Chengzai)’s poems [4.10]
  • Yang Wanli : 楊万里 (1127-1206) Song dynasty poet [4.9],[4.10]


  • Zen: 禅 one of Mahayana Buddhism sects [4.2]
  • Zhao Gu: 趙嘏 poet in Tang dynasty [4.6]
  • Zhu Xi: 朱熹 (1130-1200) Song dynasty thinker [4.4]
© Keio University
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