Skip main navigation

£199.99 £139.99 for one year of Unlimited learning. Offer ends on 28 February 2023 at 23:59 (UTC). T&Cs apply

Find out more

Additional links and reading

Suggested supplementary reading
An artists impression of feminist books on a shelf.
© University of Exeter

The following readings may be of interest for those who wish to read up on topics in more depth. Please note that some of these require access to libraries or may require payment to access.

Body ideals

MacCallum, F. & Widdows, H. Altered Images: Understanding the Influence of Unrealistic Images and Beauty Aspirations Health Care Analysis (2018) 2018; 26(3): 235-245.

Body image and work

Howlett, N., Pine, K.J., Cahill, N. et al. Unbuttoned: The Interaction Between Provocativeness of Female Work Attire and Occupational Status Sex Roles. 2015;72(3-4): 105.

Lee, S., Pitsea, M., Pillutla, M., Thau, S. ‘When beauty helps and when it hurts: An organizational context model of attractiveness discrimination in selection decisions’. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 2015;128: 15-28.

Adriana Samper, Linyun W Yang, Michelle E Daniels, Beauty, Effort, and Misrepresentation: How Beauty Work Affects Judgments of Moral Character and Consumer Preferences. Journal of Consumer Research. 2018;45(1): 126–147


Nussbaum, Martha. “Objectification”. Philosophy & Public Affairs. 1995;24(4): 249–291.

Second shift

Hochschild, A. (with A Machung) The Second Shift. Working Families and the Revolution at Home. New York: Penguin Books; 1989.

Shifting attitudes towards women working

Bolzendahl, C. I., Myers, D. J.‘Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974–1998’, Social Forces, 2004;83(2): 759–789.

Gender roles at home: how they are sustained

Giménez-Nadal, J. I., Mangiavacchi, L., Piccoli, L. ‘Keeping inequality at home: The genesis of gender roles in housework’, Labour Economics. 2019; 58: 52-68.

Other resources:

Imperial War museum review of the role of women during the first world war.

Bechdel test – this test measures the representation of women in fiction. It is named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel

The Headless Women of Hollywood Project – a project which aims to highlight practices which objectify and dehumanise women by decapitating or otherwise fragmenting their image.

© University of Exeter
This article is from the free online

Understanding Gender Inequality

Created by
FutureLearn - Learning For Life

Our purpose is to transform access to education.

We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.

We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.

Learn more about how FutureLearn is transforming access to education