Skip main navigation

Why does depression feel bad?

Why does depression feel bad? In this article, Mark Solms and Jaak Panksepp argue that depression feels like something for a reason.
Signs directing towards hope and despair
© University of Cape Town CC-BY-NC

What is depression?

Depression is characterised by a complex of feelings: low mood, low self-esteem, loss of motivation and energy, loss of pleasure in the world, etc. If my analysis of the purpose of feelings is correct, then it’s at least conceivable that these feelings mean something.

Why does depression feel bad?

I wrote this article with Prof Jaak Panksepp where we try to answer the question: why depression feels bad. Our approach is to take a neuro psychoanalytic view that acknowledges that depression feels like something for a reason.

If the function of the mind is to meet our needs in the outside world, then it stands to reason that the feelings associated with depression are also in some way motivated.

But this question is not typically addressed in psychiatry, rather psychiatrists concern themselves with some physical correlates of these feelings. Depression is reduced to a depletion in serotonin levels – but there is in fact no evidence to suggest that depression is caused by low levels of serotonin.

Depression and social loss

These feelings in question closely resemble those associated with grief, so it is possible that depression may have something to do with the social loss. If depressive feelings are so clearly linked to the psychology of attachment and loss, we should be looking to the mammalian brain systems that evolved for the purpose of mediating attachment and loss.

In studying this system, we see that mammals form attachments with their mothers, and later with sexual mates and social groups. When such bonds are broken, the animal feels bad – falls into a state of distress or panic – in order to motivate the sufferer to avoid separation and to seek reunion in order to strengthen its chance of survival.

However, if this reunion does not materialise, another mechanism kicks in which causes the animal to give up. If there is no chance of reunion, the animal needs to conserve energy and avoid predators and stay close to home base. It is this ‘giving up’ that is the despair phase of the separation response.

If you’d like to learn more about psychology and mental health, check out the full online course from The University of Cape Town, below.

© University of Cape Town CC-BY-NC
This article is from the free online

What is a Mind?

Created by
FutureLearn - Learning For Life

Our purpose is to transform access to education.

We offer a diverse selection of courses from leading universities and cultural institutions from around the world. These are delivered one step at a time, and are accessible on mobile, tablet and desktop, so you can fit learning around your life.

We believe learning should be an enjoyable, social experience, so our courses offer the opportunity to discuss what you’re learning with others as you go, helping you make fresh discoveries and form new ideas.
You can unlock new opportunities with unlimited access to hundreds of online short courses for a year by subscribing to our Unlimited package. Build your knowledge with top universities and organisations.

Learn more about how FutureLearn is transforming access to education