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Developing a vaccine for Covid-19

Case study four: COVID-19 The coronavirus pandemic that started in the Wuhan province of China at the end of 2019 continues to spread rapidly across the globe through 2020, causing …

Pandemic Case Studies: Ebola

In this video Dr Conall Watson explains how a ring vaccination trial was used in West Africa to stop the spread of Ebola during the 2014/2015 outbreak. We apologise for …

Developing a pandemic vaccine

It is widely recognised that vaccination has an important role in controlling outbreaks and pandemics of infectious diseases. In the next steps, we will learn how vaccination has been used …

Pandemic Case Studies: Meningitis & Swine Flu (H1N1)

This step will look at examples of previous global pandemics and how vaccines were used to control the outbreaks. Case study one: Meningitis epidemics Meningococcal bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis) are amongst …

What is Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)?

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arises when the organisms that cause infection evolve ways to survive treatments. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others. The …

What key role can vaccines play?

We will now go on to explore the crucial role vaccines play as part of a globally integrated strategy to prevent the generation and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Image from …

Case Study: Financial Crisis

The economic crisis in Venezuela has resulted in catastrophic damage to the country’s health care systems. The reasons for the crisis are due to political and economic factors both internal …

Case Study: Conflict

The outbreak of conflict is associated with reductions in immunisation coverage and results in environmental and social conditions that facilitate the spread of infectious diseases. Rohingya people from Myanmar In …

What is Vaccine Hesitancy?

The World Health Organisation has declared vaccine hesitancy a major threat to global health which threatens to reverse the progress that has been made in vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccine hesitancy is …

When Vaccine Schedules Break Down

Despite the best efforts of national vaccination committees and implementation strategies, immunisation does not always go to plan. This can happen for several reasons, including: Vaccine hesitancy – an umbrella …

Case Study: Timely Vaccination

Vaccine schedules are designed to be given at certain ages and specific time intervals. Vaccination records and reminders play an important role in ensuring vaccines are delivered in a timely …

Vaccine Access

Getting vaccines to where they are needed may be challenging due to the logistical issues involved in transporting vaccines or may relate to the pathways that individuals need to take …