Low fluid intake results in the urine becoming concentrated. This concentrated urine can cause irritation to the bladder mucosa (urothelium) and cause symptoms of urgency and frequency.
Urgency and frequency are associated with low volumes of very concentrated urine being passed, which over a period of time results in reduced bladder capacity. The bladder may become ‘overactive’ and the person may develop urgency incontinence.
Concentrated urine may be cloudy with an offensive odour and it may be painful to pass.
Low fluid intake is also associated with an increase in urine osmolality and acidity. If it is not correctly balanced this may increase bacterial adherence and increase the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI).
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