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How to diagnose overactive bladder

Remember overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. Find out more about different types of OAB and about urodynamics …

Overactive bladder

The defining symptom of an overactive bladder (OAB) is Urgency[1] which is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as ‘the complaint of a sudden compelling desire to pass urine, …

Innervation of the bladder

The bladder, sphincters and pelvic floor are all under nervous control. In this section we are going to look at the nerves involved in bladder control and maintenance of continence, …

Micturition control centres

The spinal, cortical and pontine micturition control centres all work together to control micturition (urination). Find out what happens when there is damage to the micturation control centres. 1. Spinal …

Bladder cycle of filling and emptying

The normal bladder fills and empties in cycles.
 Urine production by the kidneys is continuous – about 1ml per minute or 60ml an hour. Figure 2.8: The bladder cycle of …

Pelvic floor muscles

The pelvic floor muscles are made up of slow and fast twitch fibres. It requires the combination of both slow and fast twitch fibres for the pelvic floor to work. …

The pelvic floor

Pelvic floor function is very important in the maintenance of both bladder and bowel continence. The pelvic floor is a funnel shaped structure; it is a sling of muscles and …

Male urethral sphincters

Males have two sphincters: Bladder internal/neck sphincter, smooth muscle is continuous with the detrusor muscle and is under involuntary control or autonomic control; the function of this sphincter is to …

Female urethra and urethral sphincter

The female urethra has only one function which is micturition of urine. The female urethra has a length of 4-6cm, and is a straight tube which angles slightly backwards towards …

Anatomy of the lower urinary tract

To be able to understand continence fully it is important to know about the organs involved in storage and evacuation – the bladder and urethra, and how they relate to …

Male urethra

This section looks at the bladder and urethral sphincters starting with the male urethra. There is a significant difference in the length of the male and female urethra and we …

Impact of incontinence

The Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Inquiry (2013)[1] highlighted that two thirds (22 of 33) of cases of oral evidence heard, raised significant concerns about continence and bladder and bowel care. …