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How is an overactive bladder diagnosed?

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. There are different types of OAB and urodynamics can help to diagnose …

What are the symptoms of an overactive bladder?

The defining symptom of an overactive bladder (OAB) is Urgency[1] which is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as being: ‘the complaint of a sudden compelling desire to pass …

Innervation of the bladder

The bladder, sphincters and pelvic floor are all under nervous control. In this section we are going to look at the nerves involved in bladder control and maintenance of continence, …

Pelvic floor muscles

The pelvic floor muscles are made up of slow and fast twitch fibres. It requires the combination of both slow and fast twitch fibres for the pelvic floor to work. …

What is the pelvic floor?

Pelvic floor function is very important in the maintenance of both bladder and bowel continence. The pelvic floor is a funnel-shaped structure. It is a sling of muscles and ligaments …

Male urethral sphincters

Males have two sphincters: Bladder internal/neck sphincter, smooth muscle is continuous with the detrusor muscle and is under involuntary control or autonomic control; the function of this sphincter is to …

Female urethra and urethral sphincter

The female urethra has only one function which is micturition of urine. The female urethra has a length of 4-6cm, and is a straight tube which angles slightly backwards towards …

Anatomy of the lower urinary tract

To be able to understand continence fully it is important to know about the organs involved in storage and evacuation – the bladder and urethra, and how they relate to …

Male urethra

This section looks at the bladder and urethral sphincters starting with the male urethra. There is a significant difference in the length of the male and female urethra and we …

What are the impacts of incontinence?

The Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Inquiry (2013)[1] highlighted that two thirds (22 of 33) of cases of oral evidence heard raised significant concerns about continence and bladder and bowel care. …

What is continence and how is it learned?

The word ‘continence’ comes from the Latin word continentia which means ‘a holding back’. Continence refers to self-control, it is the ability to hold back bodily functions from the bladder or …