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Risk factors of COPD

Common risk factors of COPD.
Risk Factors Of Copd
© Smoke by ArtTower CC0

Common risk factors

  • Tobacco smoking is the most common risk factor for COPD worldwide. Approximately 20% of smokers develop this disease.
  • Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel used for cooking and heating in poorly vented dwellings, which particularly affects women in LMICs. About 50% of subjects who died from COPD in developing countries have been exposed to biomass smoke during their lifetime.
  • Occupational exposures such as organic and inorganic dusts, chemical agents and fumes. About 15–20% of COPD cases are due to occupational exposures to pollutants at the workplace.
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a risk factor in LMICs. Around 50% of patients suffer from pulmonary impairment after microbiological cure of PTB, of which 68% develop COPD.

Other risk factors

  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Genetic factors (eg. Hereditary alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency)
  • Ageing: 40 years and above
  • Sex: Female sex
  • Factors that affect lung growth and development
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Airway remodelling in asthma overlaps with COPD
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Severe childhood respiratory infections
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Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) in Primary Care Settings

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