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Parts of speech

Learn about different word classes and see an example of recognising them in an extract from an academic essay.
This is an extract from the academic essay which you have already seen. The nouns have been highlighted here. Notice that some of the nouns are compound nouns, where two nouns are put together for example “food waste”, “retail stage”, and that many words ending “–ing” and derived from verbs, like “manufacturing”, also work as nouns.
And here the verbs have been highlighted. Notice that there is mix of present and past tense forms, that sometimes a verb phrase includes two or more words, - “can be impacted” - and that adverbs sometimes modify the meaning of verbs - “can be negatively impacted”.
These words are all adjectives. In each case here these modify the meanings of nouns – “total food depletion”, “extensive yet harmful effects”, “economic development”.
These words are adverbs. Many words ending “-ly” are adverbs – here we have “approximately” and “negatively” – but not all words ending “–ly” are adverbs. There are a number of adjectives, nouns and verbs that also end “–ly”, and there are many adverbs which do not end “-ly”, such as “even” here.

Watch Jonathan go through the extract from the previous Step and classify the words in groups. Did you get the word classes right?

Now that you have seen an example of different word classes including: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, determiner, check your understanding in the follow-up quiz. Do not forget to mark this Step complete before you move on.

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An Intermediate Guide to Writing in English for University Study

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