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Distribution of vaccines for COVID-19

There has been much debate and media coverage about how vaccines against COVID-19 will be distributed. To stop transmission there needs to be global access to vaccines, but the key …

How do we know if a vaccine is safe?

Safety testing is an integral component of vaccine development and use. New vaccines can only be licensed once sufficient evidence of safety is available. Careful safety monitoring of newly licensed …

Vaccine preparedness case studies

We will now explore two case studies which illustrate how vaccine preparedness can be achieved. The first focuses on influenza vaccine preparedness and the second on Rift Valley fever. Influenza …

Surveillance and Vaccine Development

COVID-19 has demonstrated the ability of a pandemic to cause huge economic and social upheaval in addition to excess morbidity and mortality. It is crucial that work is undertaken to …

Viral Vectored Vaccines

Genetic material from the infectious agent for which a vaccine is required is incorporated into an unrelated virus which then acts as carrier or vector of the genetic material. Once …

RNA/DNA Vaccines

RNA and DNA are types of genetic material that encode specific proteins. Specific SARS-CoV-2 proteins, for example the spike proteins which mediate viral entry into cells, can be used as …

Live attenuated/Inactivated vaccines

Live attenuated vaccines are made from the whole SARS-CoV-2 virus which is modified so it is less infectious and incapable of causing disease, but still stimulates an immune response. Live …