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Challenges

Now we have explored the types of COVID-19 vaccine available, it is important to understand the challenges which remain. Virus variants and COVID-19 vaccines Watch the video to learn how …

Welcome to the Course

Welcome to this course on vaccines; their development and their impact on infectious diseases. The course has been developed by experts in infection and vaccinology. Over the next three weeks …

End of Course Summary

Congratulations! You have completed the final week of Vaccine Development: Finding A Vaccine for COVID-19 and Future Pandemics. Week 3 focused on understanding how vaccines are used to control outbreaks …

Welcome to Week 2

Welcome to the second week of the course. This week, we will start by exploring how vaccines are tested to make sure they are safe prior to being used widely. …

Welcome to Week 3

Welcome to week 3! In the course so far we have learned how and why vaccines are developed, as well as how they are tested and manufactured. This week we …

How will we know if a COVID-19 vaccine works?

Ideally, Phase III studies to assess COVID-19 vaccine efficacy are double blinded RCTs where participants are actively followed post-vaccination to identify COVID-19 infection and the outcomes of infection. In the …

Understanding Vaccine Efficacy and Effectiveness

Many different endpoints are used in vaccine research to define efficacy depending on the pathogen, consequences of infection and transmission dynamics. Commonly, outcome data from Phase III randomised controlled trials …

Assessing the Safety of COVID Vaccines

Currently, there is a great need for an effective COVID-19 vaccine which many see as necessary to end the current pandemic. However, the same rigorous safety assessments are required for …

End of Week 1

We hope that you have enjoyed the first week of this course. You should now have a better understanding of the different types of challenges in creating a vaccine, how …

Manufacturing Vaccines

Manufacture of vaccines is a complex and time-consuming process which requires a high level of expertise. It typically takes between 7 and 36 months to produce, package and deliver vaccines …

End of Week 2

Well done on reaching the end of Week 2! We hope you enjoyed it. You should now have gained an understanding of: How vaccine safety is assessed and monitored Specific …

Vaccine Development – The First Steps

Vaccines work by ‘showing’ the immune system a weak or inactive pathogen, or part of the pathogen against which an immune response is needed to provide protection against future infection. …