Skip to 0 minutes and 7 secondsHi, my name is Julia Jarosławska and I am going to tell you what effect does fructose have on our brain. Sugar is becoming a leading ingredient in the contemporary diet and is readily available

Skip to 0 minutes and 17 secondsin many forms: from chocolates to ice creams to soft drinks and flavored coffee. And sugar is not only in sweets and desserts. It is also added to ketchup, dairy products, bread, salad dressing and breakfast cereals. If you check the nutrition labels on products you buy, you will find sugar hidden under

Skip to 0 minutes and 37 secondsnumber of names: glucose, sucrose, dextrose, maltose, fruit juice extract, raw sugar, palm sugar corn syrup, starch, honey and many others these are all forms of sugar. One could think that sugar is sugar, but actually some sugars are better for us than others. One of the examples of a sugar that is damaging for our health when consumed in excess is fructose Fructose is naturally occurring in fresh fruits and some vegetables. However, most of fructose intake in our diet originates from “table sugar” sucrose, containing 50% of glucose and 50% of fructose, and soft drinks containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS).

Skip to 1 minute and 23 secondsHigh fructose corn syrup is a sweetener made from processed cornstarch, and similarly to sucrose is a combination of glucose and fructose, but in variable proportions. Its flavor is similar to sucrose, but it is 1.5 times sweeter and cheaper to produce. As a result, you can find high fructose corn syrup in just about anything. Although, glucose and fructose are both simple carbohydrates with the same chemical composition of carbohydrate and oxygen, they have different structures and behaves quite differently in our bodies. Glucose is the best source of energy for nearly all organisms on Earth and it can be metabolized by all organs in the body.

Skip to 2 minutes and 1 secondFructose, on the other hand, is metabolized primarily in the liver and when the liver is overloaded with sweet fructose, the excess is metabolized to fat. In fact, up until the last few decades, our diet would have contained only a small amount of fructose from natural sources like fruits. In addition to lower concentration of fructose, fruits contain water, vitamins, fiber as well as many antioxidants and minerals. Fructose in fruits does not cause overload, because the fiber in fruits slows its absorption and the liver has the time to deal with fructose. On the other hand, high fructose corn syrup adds an unnatural amount of fructose to our diet. It contains plenty of calories, but absolutely no essential nutrients.

Skip to 2 minutes and 45 secondsWhile the effect of the diet high in simple carbohydrates, and more specifically a high fructose diet, has been established as negatively influencing body weight and metabolism, much less is known about the corresponding effects on brain. Animal studies are being used to study how sugars affect brain functioning and physiology. Interestingly, in the brain fructose appears to promote feeding behavior. Fructose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite. Unlike glucose, fructose does not stimulate pancreas to secrete insulin, hormone that signals the brain to increase satiety and to blunt the reward value of food. Additionally, fructose fails to suppress levels of the appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin.

Skip to 3 minutes and 26 secondsAnd, relative to glucose, consumption of fructose, produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormones, such as GLP-1 and leptin. What is more, fructose has sweeter taste than glucose and sweet taste is known to activate brain pathways involved in the reward and motivation. Current research suggest that excessive fructose intake may lead to impaired cognitive functions and memory deficiency. Rats consuming high fructose corn syrup were performing poorly in an experiment in which they were learning how to navigate and escape the maze. Effect of fructose on cognition seems to be age dependent, since the impairment of memorization process was particularly noticeable in the adolescent rats. As it turns out fructose is not that sweet.

Skip to 4 minutes and 10 secondsBesides causing weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, a diet high in fructose may also negatively impact mental performance and increase appetite. Therefore, a good strategy for a healthy nutrition would be to cut down on sugar, eat less processed foods and check the ingredients tables.

Effects of diets rich in fructose on our brain

How does sugar affect our brain?

In this video we discuss different forms of sugar present in our diet, and point at the necessity to distinguish between sugars considered better for our health than others. Since nowadays products rich in fructose are widely used in our diet, we bring up some examples of the negative health effects of high-fructose diet on our body, including neuroendocrine system and the brain.

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This video is from the free online course:

Food for Thought: The Relationship Between Food, Gut and Brain

EIT Food