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Skip to 0 minutes and 4 seconds The Analects contain the teachings of Confucius, but as time passed, they were appreciated more for the insight they provided on politics, the economy, and literature than as a philosophical text, eventually coming to be seen as a sort of manual for virtuous conduct. We noted earlier that the warlords of the Warring States period deeply cherished the Analects. It may be that since the Analects were written at a time of social instability, their influence was especially felt at times of social unrest. The text I have here is a late-Muromachi manuscript of the Analects [1]. It was originally a book, but it was rebound as a scroll to make it easier to carry.

Skip to 1 minute and 13 seconds We can imagine some hardened medieval warrior taking it with him everywhere he went. And then, after many generations, the book eventually came to be owned by Katsu Kaishū (), a statesman and one of the architects of modern Japan in the Meiji period (#) Kaishū’s other name was Yasuyoshi, as the stamp at the beginning of this book, “Katsu Yasuyoshi”, shows. As a government official, he is famous for conducting negotiations between governmental forces and foreign powers and for engineering the peaceful surrender of Edo castle by holding a meeting with the famous Saigo Takamori (). The meeting was held at the Satsuma estate in Tamachi, right next to Keio University here.

Skip to 2 minutes and 12 seconds Kaishū traveled to the United States on the Kanrin-maru as part of Japan’s first diplomatic mission in centuries. As a senior official of the Navy, he was among a handful of men who shaped the destiny of modern Japan in both domestic affairs and international diplomacy. Keio’s founder, Fukuzawa Yukichi (*), was his fellow traveller on the Kanrin-maru. Knowledgeable about foreign countries, well-read in the classics, and blessed with a brave spirit and inexhaustible energy, one may suppose that Kaishū succeeded in politics through sheer force and craftiness. As his motto, “The key to achievement is one word–sincerity,” shows, however, his political thought and attitude to life were deeply influenced by Confucius’ ideas.

Skip to 3 minutes and 9 seconds There is a saying in the Analects that goes: “The way of the Master is loyalty and devotion to others, nothing else.” We can assume that by “sincerity” Kaishū meant honest commitment to others. Like Confucius, he travelled the world and taught how to govern a country well. And from the Analects, he learned how one ought to conduct oneself in times of social upheaval.

Skip to 3 minutes and 37 seconds He wrote: “To govern, learning and knowledge come second; sincerity and devotion to office are the most important thing.”

Skip to 3 minutes and 50 seconds The Analects contain passages like the following: “The Master said, “When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.” It is easy to see how indebted to Confucian ideas Kaishū’s politics was. Another of Kaishū’s ideals was ”Honest poverty and nobility of character”, which is also close to the Confucian attitude to material wealth.

Skip to 4 minutes and 36 seconds It is said in the Analects: “The Master said, “Extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be mean than to be insubordinate.” Thus, through such figures as Kaishū, the influence of the Analects extended to the sphere of politics and the economy, in Japan and in the rest of East Asia.

時代を変えた『論語』

『論語』は、日本の経済、政治にも影響を与えてきました。日本の歴史上最も大きな変換点の一つである明治維新を推進したある人も、論語に影響を受けていました。高橋教授が解説するビデオをご覧ください。

Keywords (terms, period names, figure’s names) in the video

ビデオで紹介した書籍

Old Scroll 『論語』勝海舟旧蔵
Click to take a close look
https://gc.sfc.keio.ac.jp/fl_img/course03/week2_all.html#2.15

いろいろな論語

ビデオでは、論語の中で、政治・経済に関連した有名な2つの記述を紹介しています。が、他にも多くの記述があります。その中からいくつかを合わせて紹介しましょう。

「子曰、其身正、不令而行、其身不正、雖令不從。」
「其の身正しければ、令せずとも行われ、其の身正しからざれば、令すと雖も従わず」子路篇6
(君子は自らの身を正し、自然と民がついてくる政治)

「子曰、奢則不孫、儉則固、與其不孫也寧固。」
「奢るときは不遜なり、倹なるときは固なり、其の不遜よりは倹なれ」述而篇35
(倹約は頑固のもとであるが、不遜な態度よりはましだ)

「子曰、為政以徳、譬如北辰居其所、而衆星共之。」
「政を為すに徳を以てすれば、譬えば北辰の其の所に居りて衆星のこれを共(めぐ)るがごとし」為政篇1
(北極星を中心とする星座のように君子を中心とした自然な政治)

「子曰、君子不器。」
「君子は器ならず」為政篇2

「子曰、先行其言、而後従之」
「先ず其の言を行うと、而して後にこれに従う」為政篇13
(先ず実行する政治)

「子曰、君子周而不比、小人比而不周」
「君子は周して比せず、小人は比して周せず」為政篇14
(徒党・派閥はくまない政治)

あなたの好きな論語の記述を教えてください。

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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 漢籍の受容

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