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From this step, we will look at how the reading practices of the great aristocratic scholarly families gradually spread to readers from other backgrounds, and how the Analects eventually broke free from the grip of the scholarly families and gave birth to a whole new culture. In 1364 (Shōhei 19) a printed edition of the Analects known as the Shōhei version Analects (Shōhei-ban rongo) [1] was published for the first time. In Tenmon 2 (1533), another text by the one of the hakase families was published (known as Tenmon version Analects [2]).
Suddenly, texts which had previously been jealously kept within the hakase families, came to be read by members of the clergy [3] as well as by the rising group of the time, the samurai. How did Zen monks mark the Chinese text to vocalize it in Japanese? How and why did they publish for warriors?[4] What do the Analects printed using movable type technology imported from Korea in the 16th c. look like? [5] And how did warriors read the text? [6] Using actual books like this copy of the Analects, belonging to the son of the famous 17th c.
general Takenaka Hanbei, Takenaka Shigekado, [7] let us trace step by step the process through which the Analects penetrated ever more deeply into Japanese culture, going from the hakase families to Zen monks, and, finally, warriors.


Keywords (terms, era names, figure’s names) in the video



  1. 『正平版論語』
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  2. 『天文版論語』
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  3. 『論語戒光院本』
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  4. 『四書大全』
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  5. 『古活字版論語』
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  6. 『覆古活字版論語』
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  7. 『四書集注』竹中重門旧蔵
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古書から読み解く日本の文化: 漢籍の受容

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