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Manufacturing Vaccines

This article explains the multiple stages that are involved in the manufacturing process of vaccines.
Vial in a laboratory being filled with liquid.

Manufacture of vaccines is a complex and time-consuming process which requires a high level of expertise.

It typically takes between 7 and 36 months to produce, package and deliver vaccines to those who need them. The vaccine production process includes testing each batch of vaccine at every step of its journey, and repeat quality control of batches by different authorities around the world.

This illustration produced by the vaccine manufacturer Sanofi shows the multiple stages that are necessary to manufacture a vaccine:

A timeline with different images representing each each of the vaccine manufacturing process Continued timeline showing the last steps in vaccine manufacturing

Image adapted from Sanofi. If you require a text version of the above image, this is available as a PDF.

Now we’ve gone through how a vaccine is developed and manufactured, it’s time to take a look at how this is being done for COVID-19.

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Vaccine Development: Finding a Vaccine for COVID-19 and Future Pandemics

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