## Questions prompted by the Formal Systems Model

The Formal Systems Model suggests and supports the following analytic questions [1]: What is the continuous purpose or mission of the system? What is the system supposed to do? Who …

## The Gold-Silver-Bronze command structure

It would take far more time than we have on this course to analyse fully a system failure as complex as the de Menezes example. To do this it would …

## Identifying system failure

Our multiple cause diagram is given above. It shows the obvious causes for people waiting in the corridor, namely too many people being admitted to the hospital but there being …

## Conclusion to Week 1

At the end of Week 1 you have been introduced to some of the basic ideas of systems thinking and some of the techniques for drawing systems diagrams. These include: …

## Drawing systems diagrams

Exercise Imagine you are the CEO of a hospital with an A&E (Accident & Emergency) department. For this exercise suppose you have the problem that newly admitted accident and emergency …

## Sketching a hospital system

The previous step set the exercise of drawing a system map and influence diagram for a hospital system. Our diagrams are given below: In this system map the components inside …

## Analysing system failure

Exercise Analysing failure with multiple cause diagrams Imagine that as the manager of a hospital you have the problem that patients are spending an unacceptable time on trolleys in a …

## System dynamics

System dynamics, developed by J. W. Forrester in the 1960s, goes far beyond diagrams to analyse the behaviour of complex systems using qualitative and quantitative methods to model the dynamics …

## The bed blocking problem

Hospitals and Sheltered Housing in the Bed-Blocking System Over the past few years, it has become common in the UK for elderly patients to remain in hospitals after their clinical …

## Influence diagrams

An influence diagram represents the main structural feature of a system and the important influences that exist between them. It presents an overview of areas of activity, organisation and other …

## Multiple cause diagrams

Multiple cause diagrams are used to explore why changes or events happen in systems. They do not predict behaviour, but may give insights into the multiple causes of system behaviour …

## Sign graphs

Sign diagrams are used to represent relationships between variables. The go beyond the qualitative towards the quantitative. They are useful for investigating the likely effects of changes and interventions in …

## Towards the Formal Systems Model

The image above is an illustration of the Formal Systems Model. We will work towards defining this model in the rest of the steps this week. Building a Formal Systems …

## Systems maps

A system map shows the components and boundary of a system and the components of the environment at a point in time. A system map is effectively a list of …

## Can we be objective when analysing systems?

In the last step you were asked the questions: which country do you live in? do you think in five years most British citizens will have higher incomes as a …