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Glossary

Glossary of terms used in this course Agglutination: Clumping together of antibody-coated latex beads and bacteria when a specific antigen is present. Antimicrobial: An agent that kills or inhibits microorganisms …

Global perspective

In this video, Dr Lillian Musila interviews Professor Sam Kariuki about the AMR problem in Kenya In your country, is there an awareness of the big problem that AMR presents? …

Plasmids

What are plasmids? Plasmids are small pieces of circular extrachromosomal DNA in bacteria. They are able to copy themselves inside bacterial cells independently from the chromosome (self-replicating) and exist in …

Other AST methods

Double disc synergy extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) confirmation test In the disc diffusion susceptibility testing, you will have measured an E. coli that showed resistance to a cephalosporin (Cefpodoxime). This would …

Chromosomal mutation and recombination

Bacterial clonal reproduction Bacterial cells reproduce clonally. During clonal reproduction, each bacterial progenitor cell copies its DNA at high fidelity before splitting into two new cells (progeny), each with a …

Interpretation

Interpretation of the disc diffusion test. The bacteria that have been tested are two strains of Escherichia coli. Compare your measurements against the table below to determine if the bacteria …

Bacterial identification techniques

Culture The first step in bacterial identification is usually culture. Many bacteria have a unique morphology – shape and colour – which experienced technicians can use as an initial step …

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is done to detect antimicrobial resistance, and to determine the appropriate antimicrobial to use for treatment. There are many methods of AST, but the simplest and …

Importance of correct bacterial identification

Correct identification of the bacteria is the first step when investigating antimicrobial resistance in the laboratory. One of the oldest methods still in use today is the Gram stain, which …

Aseptic technique

Aseptic technique is one of the fundamental principles of microbiology and is crucial to prevent cross-contamination of the cultures and media and importantly to maintain our own health and safety. …

Importance of whole genome sequencing

In the previous weeks we have learned about various phenotypic and molecular methods of detecting antimicrobial resistance. Although these methods are accurate, the information generated is limited to specific genes. …

ENA database and assembly

In this video, Narender is explaining how to download read data from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA). The ENA is a data repository containing huge volumes of sequence data stored …

Detection of resistance using Pathogenwatch

In this video, you can see how the Pathogenwatch tool can be used to detect antimicrobial resistance Link to downloadable fasta file (Important – in order to download data from …

Selection

Usage of antibiotics in healthcare In the presence of antibiotics, minor resistant bacterial populations have a selective growth advantage and proliferate while the others die out. Inappropriate use or misuse …