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What are inter-governmental transfers?

There are many ways for governments to generate revenue. One such method is via inter-governmental transfers. What are inter-governmental transfers? These are transfers of financial resources between levels of government …

The main categories of public sector revenues

Governments raise revenues from a combination of revenue sources, but in most countries, however, these revenues mostly originate from taxation. How taxes contribute to government revenues As there are different …

Mars: The taxation attraction

“I do not need to remind you that part of your budget is funded by the Earth Space Governance Body,” replied Sophie. “It is not unreasonable that they expect that …

Coming up next week

Our video round-up of the activities and discussions we’ve examined looks back at Week 2. This week we’ve looked at how the public sector makes decisions about expenditures. We now …

Spending on Mars

Clearance required “That is something that the Earth Space Governance Body did not authorize.” The latest developments had been long discussed in the super-national organisation, and had also fuelled animated …

Comprehensive Spending Reviews (CSRs)

In the UK, the practice of conducting a comprehensive review of public spending gained widespread attention in the 2000s. The Start of Comprehensive Spending Reviews (CSRs) The first major Comprehensive …

What are Austerity Measures?

In the aftermath of the 2007-8 financial crisis, many governments around the world found themselves under severe financial pressure. In a bid to recapitalise banks and to restore confidence among …

Are all public expenditures necessary?

What is the role of the government and how should it spend its money? From spending on national defence to providing pension schemes, we generally think that the government should …

Case study: Brazil’s Bolsa Familia

The largest social welfare programme of its kind, Brazil’s Bolsa Familia is one of the most famous conditional cash transfers (CCTs) programmes in the world. Created in October 2003, it …

Evaluations and performance review

If most money for public programmes originates from taxes, it’s natural that we would like governments to tell us what we get out of those programmes. Answers to our questions …

What is the return to public expenditures?

When a government or any public sector organisation spends public money there are various consequences. Here, we examine just how governments assess whether a public expenditure is worth undertaking and …

Singapore’s Public Expenditure

Since gaining independence from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, Singapore has been managing its own budget. Its central government has remained relatively small with respect to those of most …

How are expenditure decisions made?

To understand how public expenditure decisions are made, we need to think about the differences between the public and private sectors. In this short video, Dr Ben Hardy outlines the …

Making decisions about public expenditures

How are public expenditures decided? To answer this simple question, we first need to examine the institutions of public governance. The institutions of public governance The organisation of public authorities, …