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Job demands-resources model (JD-R theory)

According to the job demands-resources model of employee wellbeing (Bakker and Demerouti 2007), working conditions can be classified into one of two categories: jobs demands or jobs resources.

Jobs demands

Jobs demands are the physical, psychological, social or organisational aspects of a job, that require physical and/or psychological effort from an individual. They are associated with a physical and/or psychological cost and can include time pressures, heavy workloads, stressful working environments, role ambiguity and poor work relationships.

Job resources

Job resources are the physical, psychological, social or organisation factors that enable an individual to achieve their goals and reduce stress. They can include good work relationships, autonomy, learning and development, coaching and mentoring as well as the opportunity for promotion.

This diagram shows various job demands; mental, emotional, physical etc and various job resources: support, autonomy, feedback etc. Both job demands and job resources interact with each other. Job demands are shown leading to strain and job resources are shown leading to motivation. Both strain and motivation are shown as leading to organisational outcomes positive and negative. Click to expand

Adapted from Bakker, A., Demerouti, E. (2007)

The model asserts that employee wellbeing can be negatively impacted when job demands are high, and job resources are low, resulting in high strain and low motivation. Alternatively, when job demands are high and job resources are high, engagement and performance are improved, as illustrated in the figure below.

This diagram shows a grid. The vertical y-axis reads Resources and ranges from High to Low. The horizontal x-axis reads Demands and ranges from low to high. In the top left-hand corner is Low strain, High motivation and in the top right-hand corner is 'Average strain, High motivation'. In the bottom left-hand corner is 'Low strain, Average motivation' and 'High strain, Low motivation' Click to expand

Adapted from Bakker, A., Demerouti, E. (2007)

Your task

What do you consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of the job demands-resources model?

You may want to bring in Mary Lucas from the introductory video into your response.

Post your thoughts in the comments and ‘like’ or reply to posts you find useful or interesting.


Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. (2007) ‘The Job Demands-Resources Model: State of the Art’ Journal of Managerial Psychology [online] 22 (3), 309–328. available from https://locate.coventry.ac.uk/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_gale_ofa163361617&context=PC&vid=COV_VU1&search_scope=Primo_Central&tab=remote&lang=en_US [10th May 2019]

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This article is from the free online course:

Wellbeing at Work: An Introduction

Coventry University